“Prosumers” (combining “producer” and “consumers”) describes consumers’ ability to openly share their product/service experiences and thereby drive sales and digital marketing. Understanding what motivates active prosumers to engage in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and share or review their hotel experiences online can help organizations empathize with consumers and utilize their messages to co-create value. Identifying prosumers’ motivators can enable companies to properly target them as resources for review or consumer feedback studies. This study investigated the influence of motivators (intrinsic and extrinsic), service quality, and age on consumers’ electronic word-of-mouth communication behaviors.
A panel of 204 travelers was surveyed regarding their hotel travel experiences, propensity to write online reviews, preferred review-writing platform, motivations for writing reviews, and impressions of service quality. To test the hypotheses, a multivariate regression analysis was performed with eWOM as the dependent variable. Differences in eWOM as a function of preferred review platform were also tested using ANOVA, with a multiple comparison analysis that underlines the differences between prosumers who prefer different types of review platforms and their eWOM behaviors.
Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, as well as service reliability, had a significant influence on eWOM behavior, while service tangibility had a negative relationship. Additionally, prosumers’ engagement in eWOM about their hospitality experience differed according to their preferred review platform.
This paper develops a better understanding of what motivates people to engage in the eWOM communication behavior of writing online hotel reviews, by showing the effect of consumer motivations and service quality variables on prosumers’ engagement in online review behavior.
Keywords: Electronic Word-of-Mouth, eWOM, Online Reviews, Prosumers, Service Quality, SERVQUAL
To enhance brand equity, firms can deploy different marketing communication elements, such as advertising, promotions, and sponsorships, which create brand awareness (i.e., recall and recognition) and ultimately positive, unique associations. Instead of starting from scratch, though, companies often prefer to avoid costly development by acquiring existing brands. Prior research, however, has indicated that acquiring firms suffer from a “winner’s curse,” which results from the information asymmetries inherent in valuing intangible assets. Drawing from established marketing and finance literature theory and methods, in this paper we provide evidence regarding how equity markets perceive brand acquisition strategies, and whether these strategies reduce the acquirers’ perceived risk relative to a control sample of firms. Our results suggest that shareholders view brand acquisitions, unlike other intangible asset acquisitions, as fairly valued. Yet, the market appears to value brand acquisitions differently based on the brand’s characteristics, which also affect performance after acquisition. Furthermore, we document a decline in systematic risk following brand acquisitions.
Abstract: The landscape in consumer marketing is changing due to the rise in popularity of social media. This shift has also affected how higher education institutions build relationships with their stakeholders. This study explores how social media engagement impacts relationship quality between the university and one of its key stakeholder groups, students. Data were collected via an online survey and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, regression, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results indicated a positive association between students following a university via social media and the perception of having a high quality relationship with their university and that following a university on multiple social media sites leads to an even higher perception of relationship quality. The results provide important and timely implications for both universities and higher education marketers. Our findings suggest that higher education marketers should invest resources in social media communications to form high quality relationships with their stakeholders.
Keywords: Social media; relationship quality; social exchange theory; commitment; trust
Abstract: Loss of businesses to surrounding areas has escalated in the past decade, promoting an examination of factors causing business defection from the city of Georgetown, South Carolina. Kotler (1969) warned that customer retention is more important than identifying new prospects. If the customer’s satisfaction levels fall below completely satisfied, there is a risk of customer defection. This issue is important because the “purpose of a business is to create and keep customers” (Kotler 1969, p. 2). Therefore, understanding what dissatisfies a customer is just as important as understanding what satisfies a customer. The degree to which cities are vulnerable to customer defection is impacted by a number of factors such crime, history, infrastructure (including construction), city rules and regulations, festivals and events, friendliness of doing business, and support from the city/county. Our results suggest that friendliness impacts merchants’ likeliness to continue doing business in Georgetown.
Keywords: Marketing, Economic Development, Small Business, Business Retention
Social media is a valuable marketing tool in the hospitality and tourism industry for its immense potential to generate business value and customer satisfaction. This is especially true in the luxury segment. Specifically, microblogging sites such as Twit-ter in the United States and Sina Weibo (pronounced as way-bo) in China have al-lowed hospitality and tourism customers to discuss brands online with other custom-ers globally. Microblogging allows users to interact with other users as well as brand representatives in a timely and relevant format that encourages conversation. Twitter is one of the most popular social media platforms and is also a crucial component of the marketing communications strategy for the hotel industry. In the case of interna-tional hotels that operate in China, the companies must also incorporate Sina Weibo, the mandarin and Cantonese variation of Twitter, for China. Using both sites allows these hotels to expand their target market. Hospitality and tourism marketers could use some guidance about how to best utilize both microblogging platforms concurrently. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the usage of social media by comparing Twitter in the United States and Sina Weibo in China. Specifically, the focus will be on how information is acquired and disseminated on these social media platforms in international luxury hotel segments. The authors will draw on Biel’s brand image and communication theory to explore how international luxury hotels employ different marketing communication strategies on these two microblogging platforms in the United States and China. Data from both sites was collected and analyzed using content analysis and logistic regression analysis. The results suggest that luxury hotels should continue building brand image through Twitter and Sina Weibo, and provide more promotion activities on Sina Weibo to attract Chinese customers.
Sina Weibo; Twitter; international luxury hotels; communication; brand image; social media strategy; microblogging.
Quick response (QR) codes are an increasingly popular form of two-dimensional barcode. First designed for the Japanese automotive industry, a growing number of firms and sales representatives around the world are now using QR codes as a channel to market their products/services to their customers’ mobile devices. This research investigates consumers’ perceptions of QR codes. The results suggest that incentives and exposure are the most important factors contributing to the consumer’s perception of QR codes.
Generally, museums are an integral part of the fabric of any prosperous society. Specifically, children’s museums serve to educate and entertain the youth and the young at heart. The Children’s Museum of South Carolina allows visitors of all ages to touch, explore, play, and learn. According to the Association of Children’s Museums (2013), the total economic activity of its children’s museum members was $449 million. This paper assessed direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts to determine an associated total economic impact that exceeds $4 million for the Children’s Museum of South Carolina.
This paper focuses on the development of a novel approach to teaching operations management (OM) topics through experiential learning with a study abroad course going to France, Germany, and Spain, in which students engaged in company visits and other learning activities. Content analysis of self-reflection included in final reports indicated that students incorporated concept applications from multiple areas of OM in their reports. Assessment of student evaluations indicated that, in comparison with students taking the same course in a traditional on-campus format, students believed that they learned significantly more from this course as compared to other courses on the focal campus. The program responds to critiques posed by authors who suggest the superficiality of some study abroad programs and incorporates novel approaches to engage student appreciation of the implications and context of OM topics. Activities for engaging similar exposure to topics in the traditional on-campus OM classroom are presented.
The use of mobile technology has increased dramatically in recent years. Marketers are looking to capitalise on this new form of technology by providing consumers with the information they desire on their mobile devices. This study answers the question of what influences a consumer’s attitude to receiving news through mobile applications. User characteristics, such as willingness to conform and attitude toward technology, combined with mobile application characteristics, such as usability and alert provision, are considered for their impact on the dependent variable. The study analyses the results of an online survey, using regression. The results suggest that attitude toward technology is the most important factor contributing to a consumer’s attitude to receiving news through mobile applications.
More than any other area of business, expertise in personal selling and sales management can best be seen through applied learning styles. Many universities are now offering sale concentration in marketing or even MBA degrees. However, many students still feel instructors teaching methods are outdated. Instructors use many different techniques such as role-playing, dialogues, and case studies to teach personal selling. Students may be able to demonstrate excellence in selling using a non-profit organization. Giving your students the task to obtain commitment in the form of donations gives them real-world experience in selling. This project gives back to the local community while using experiential learning techniques to teach sales.
Marketing and management departments preach a continual discourse about the importance of feedback from customers. Yet many business schools do not take the time to develop their own student satisfaction surveys to provide the departments with useful feedback. Business schools are constantly forced to compete with other colleges and often other majors within the university setting. This study provides an analysis of student satisfaction based on a questionnaire mailed to alumni.